SAP ABAP Interview Questions & Answers Part 1

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1. What is SAP ABAP?

Ans: SAP is a type of software known as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) that large company use to manage their day to day affairs. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the coding language for SAP to develop RICEFW objects. (Reports, Interfaces, Extensions, Forms and Workflows).

2. What do you mean by an ABAP data dictionary?

Ans: To describe the logical structures of the objects that are used in application development ABAP 4 data dictionary is used.  It is also used to show the underlying relational database in tables.

3. Explain the difference between pool tables and transparent tables?

Ans: Transparent tables:  It has one to one relation with the table in the database.  Its structure corresponds to single database field.

Pooled tables: It has many to one relation with the table in the database.  Pooled tables are stored at the database level.

a)  Basic List: For simple reports
b)  Statistics:  For Percentage, Average etc.
c)  Ranked List: For analytical reports

Explain the difference between pool tables and transparent tables?

4. What do you mean by BDC (Batch Data Communications) programming?

Ans: It is an automatic procedure to transfer large or external data into SAP system. ‘Queue file’ is the central component of the transfer, which receives the data through batch input programs and groups that are associated into ‘sessions’.

5. Describe the data classes?

Ans: The data classes are classified into following classes

Master Data: The data in this class seldom change
Transaction Data: The data can be changed often in this class
Organization Data:  This data is a customized data and is entered in the system when the system is configured. It is rarely changed.
System Data:  This data is used by R/3 system itself

6. What are the internal tables?

Ans: Internal table exists only when the program is run. It is used for performing table calculations on subset of database tables and also for re-organizing the content of database tables as per the users need.

7. List down the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?

Ans: There are 3 functional modules which are used in sequence to perform data transfer successfully using BDC programming.  They are


8. What is a foreign key relationship?

Ans: To ensure the consistency of data, foreign keys are used. The relationship established between the tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Data entered should be checked against the existing data to ensure that there is no contradiction. Cardinality has to be specified while defining foreign key relationship.

9. In ABAP what are the differences between table and structure in data dictionary?

Ans: The difference between structure and table is
  • Data can be stored physically in Table, but a structure cannot
  • Structure does not have primary key but table can have
  • Table can have the technical attribute but the structure does not have

10. What is Smart Forms?

Ans: Smart forms allow you to create forms using a graphical design tool.

11. What are the components of SAP scripts?

Ans: For SAP, SAP scripts are a word processing tool. It has a function like standard text and layout sets. Its layout set consists of: Windows and pages, Character formats, Paragraph formats etc.

12. How to create ‘table cluster’?

  • In ABAP dictionary, select object type Table,  enter a table name and choose creat
  • A field maintenance screen for the table is displayed. Table type Transparent table, set it as a default
  • Make the necessary entries in the short description and delivery classified on the Attributes page. Then define the fields of the table.
  • Proceed as when creating a transparent table. Now save your entries
  • Now choose EXTRASàChange table category
  • When a dialogue box appears you have to select the table type ‘Pooled table’ or ‘Cluster table’
  • After selecting the table, return to the field maintenance screen for the table. Field pool or cluster name is displayed on the Attributes tab page in addition to the standard fields.
  • Now enter the name of the table cluster or table pool to which you want to assign the cluster table.

13. How can you format the data before write statement in the report?

Ans: By using the loop event the reports output can be formatted
  • .at first
  • .at new
  • .at last

14. Explain the difference between Template and Table?

Ans: The difference between the table and template is that, table is a dynamic and template is a static.

15. Mention what is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?

Ans: ALV stands for Application List Viewer.  To enhance the output of the report, SAP provides a set of ALV function modules which can be used, and it also improves the functionality and readability of any report output.  It is an efficient tool used for arranging the columns in a report output.

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